Arthritis is the most common pathology of the articular structures. Depending on the reasons for the development of the disease it distinguishes 5 basic forms: rheumatoid, reactive, infectious, psoriatic and gouty. The symptoms of arthritis and its symptoms in each case will depend on whether the clinical variant of the disease.
The symptoms of reactive arthritis
Reactive arthritis – inflammatory disease is non-purulent nature, which is evident after acute urogenital or intestinal infection. This pathology often affects men of young age.
The first signs usually appear in the form of a General malaise: weakness, fatigue, headache. Sometimes there is an increase in overall body temperature, which rarely exceeds 38°C.
The characteristic symptom of this form of disease is an asymmetrical lesions of leg joints (e.g. ankle, knee or hip) that appears a few days after nonspecific signs (ie signs of the disease, not associated with lesions of the joints). Sometimes in the pathological process involved joints between the pelvic bones. Often inflamed ligaments and tendons (for example, lesions of the Achilles tendon). Pain have varying degrees of severity, but rarely intense.
These symptoms at the same time can be accompanied by an inflammatory process in organs of genitourinary system. In this case, there are constant urge to urinate (feeling sudden desire to urinate) may occur burning and stinging at this point.
Soreness, irritation and redness of the eyes, and impaired visual acuity associated with the emergence of conjunctivitis (inflammatory process of the mucous membrane covering the eyelid and the eyeball), which may occur prior to the beginning of joint damage, and at the same time.
Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic chronic disease, the symptoms of which lead to a significant reduction in the quality of life in the first place, because of the pain and change the shape of the joints. This pathology is often causal of disability.
Classical rheumatoid arthritis (it may be incorrectly called rheumatic) has a fairly distinctive symptoms:
- The first signs become swollen and inflamed metacarpophalangeal joints on the middle and index fingers. Often it is combined with similar lesions of the wrist joint.
- In almost every case, the joints affected symmetrically (i.e. the same, for example, on the right and left foot).
- Arthritis pain worse at night, closer to morning. It is quite intense until noon, and then stops. If the pathology is at an early stage, that painful sensations pass after exercise. But the sense of relief is never long lasting – a few hours or in the morning pain attack is resumed.
- The stiffness of body in the morning, feeling of weakness. The patient may complain of "feeling dura body", "tight gloves on hands" or "tight corset on the body" those are the words people describe their condition. These sensations pass through 1-2 hours after waking up, but in the case of severe illness can disturb the person and throughout the day.
- Often along with inflamed joints of the hands affects the small joints of the feet, which are at the base of the fingers. The process is also symmetric. On examination, the patient noted pain while pressing on the pads of the toes.
- If the disease progresses, the inflammation goes on the larger joints (e.g., knee, shoulder, elbow or ankle). But it happens that at the initial stage of inflamed Achilles tendons and larger joints, and then the process extends to the foot and brush – this form of disease is often seen in elderly people.
- Occur rheumatoid nodes – small dense formations under the skin in areas where bend the elbows, hands and feet. These nodules may be constantly changing in size, then disappear, then reappear, and sometimes not change over the years. They do not cause any sensations, simply create a cosmetic defect.
- At the developed stage of the disease the symptoms increase, there is a severe deformity of the hands and fingers. May meet, when the hands and fingers begin to deviate outwards, and is fixed to the brush in the wrong position – because of this mobility in the wrist joint is reduced. As a result of impaired circulation and innervation* brushes: they pale, you receive muscle atrophy.
- * Innervation – communication organs and tissues of the Central nervous system through nerves.
- The disease is accompanied by recurrent signs of intoxication, which include the following symptoms: weakness, chills, fatigue, weight loss, poor appetite, a temperature increase to 38.5°C.
- Over time, the disease affects all articular surfaces. Larger ones can become inflamed without considerable discomfort, but their mobility is deteriorating.
- You may receive a Baker's cyst is a symptom that occurs when the concentration in the capsule of the knee, excess fluid, which stretches it. If this fluid (exudate) very much, it can lead to the rupture of cystic masses. As a result, the liquid impregnates the tissues on the posterior surface of the tibia, there are swelling and pain in this area.
Can also be other symptoms that accompany rheumatoid arthritis:
- inflammation of the salivary glands,
- numbness of the limbs,
- pain in the eyes,
- pain in the chest during breathing.
Rheumatoid joint damage differs from rheumatism by the fact that the inflammatory process is more persistent, because the pain and swelling of tissues can bother for years. Arthrosis disease is different because pain is not aggravated by the load, and Vice versa – down after strenuous exercise.
Symptoms of infectious arthritis
Infectious variant of the disease, also known as septic or pyogenic serious infectious disease. It is based on infiltration of microorganisms into the joint structures, followed by the active inflammation of the latter. This condition needs urgent medical care.
The most common signs of arthritis of infectious origin:
- Abrupt onset. In rare cases, a gradual build-up and increased symptoms for three weeks (for example, the disease in infants).
- Symptoms of intoxication: fever (usually above 38.5°C), chills, pain in muscles, headache. The younger children may be vomiting or nausea.
- Very pronounced swelling of the affected joint, causing a constantly increasing and changing its shape.
- Most often affects the knee, elbow, shoulder, hip, wrist joints and the articular surfaces of the fingers.
- Increased pain during movement. For example, when the affected hip joint, the pain experienced in the groin area and is enhanced during walking.
- Movements become limited, and the forced position of the limb: when the pain is felt the least.
- The increase in temperature in the region of affected joints (skin hot).
- In the elderly the symptoms may be more blurred, and younger children on the contrary – the clinic is very rapid.
The symptoms of gouty arthritis
Gout is a disease associated with metabolic disturbance and accumulation in the body of excess uric acid. Typically, the disease affects joint tissues.
For this form of disease is characterized by the following features:
- Sudden onset of the pain attack, most often at night and after considerable errors in diet – eating large amounts of meat and alcohol.
- Often there is a loss of the first joint of the big toe, less inflamed knee or elbow.
- The affected area becomes red, tumidam, touching it causes severe pain.
- A quick resolution of the attack. Even without treatment, all clinical symptoms disappear after a few days.
- General condition of the patient not much disturbed, the body temperature rises.
Symptoms of psoriatic arthritis
Psoriatic variant of the disease develops on the background of specific lesions of the skin and nails. It can affect any joint in the human body, but most often its manifestations are found in fingers.
Inflammation in joint tissues develops gradually, with marked swelling and redness of the affected areas (with the defeat of the fingers they take the form of "sausages"), and the local increase in temperature. In the initial stages of pain and limitation are not typical. As the progression of the process appears in the morning stiffness that disappears within the first hour. The inflammation can spread to the periarticular structures, causing lesions of tendons and ligaments.
Articular manifestations of the disease accompanied by the appearance on the skin and scalp red scaly spots, itching and discomfort.
In addition to discussed in this article common forms of arthritis there are more rare variants: for example, idiopathic, endocrine.
As you can see, arthritis is a serious disease with manifold manifestations. The disease is important to diagnose in time, and the treatment must be under the supervision of skilled professionals. Self-medication can lead to serious complications or even disability.